Black Powder:
Make - Substitute - Measure - Ballistics.
Muzzleloader - Rifle - Loading - Accuracy.
Lead Ball - .45" - Sharps - .45-70 - Reload.
Traditional Side-Lock:
Longrifle - Hawken - Loading - Cleaning.
Modern In-Line:
Magnum - CVA Accura - Loading.
Ballistics Tables:
Centerfire Rifle - Rimfire Rifle - Handgun - Muzzleloader - Shotgun Slug.
Shotgun Shells - Shotgun Game Guide.
Muzzle-Loaded Rifle Ballistics:

Black Powder Velocity Comparisons:
 .45 Caliber Rifled Muzzleloader:
PowderGrains VolumeBullet Type and Weight Velocity
Goex FFFg80 grains137 grain Roundball 1861 fps.
Goex FFFg90 grains137 grain Roundball 1940 fps.
Goex FFg80 grains220 grain Conical Bullet 1500 fps.
 .50 Caliber Rifled Muzzleloader:
PowderGrains VolumeBullet Type and Weight Velocity
Goex FFg80 grains188 grain Roundball 1730 fps.
Goex FFg90 grains188 grain Roundball 1870 fps.
Goex FFg80 grains370 grain Conical Bullet 1200 fps.

Black Powder Ballistics, Modern:
 .45 Caliber Rifle, Magnum Rated, Barrel Length 28", Twist Rate 1 in 48":
PowderGrains VolumeBullet Weight And Type Muzzle VelocityMuzzle EnergyPressure
Goex FFFg120 Grain128 Grain Roundball 2,124 FPS.1,283 FT.LB.18,700 PSI.
Goex FFFg110 Grain128 Grain Roundball 2,043 FPS.1,187 FT.LB.18,000 PSI.
Goex FFg120 Grain245 Grain Maxi 1,894 FPS.1,952 FT.LB.19,500 PSI.
Goex FFg110 Grain245 Grain Maxi 1,823 FPS.1,808 FT.LB.18,900 PSI.
 .50 Caliber Rifle, Magnum Rated, Barrel Length 28", Twist Rate 1 in 48":
PowderGrains VolumeBullet Weight And Type Muzzle VelocityMuzzle EnergyPressure
Goex FFFg120 Grain177 Grain Roundball 2,015 FPS.1,596 FT.LB.10,800 PSI.
Goex FFFg110 Grain177 Grain Roundball 1,963 FPS.1,515 FT.LB.10,300 PSI.
Goex FFg120 Grain370 Grain Maxi 1,520 FPS.1,899 FT.LB.12,200 PSI.
Goex FFg110 Grain370 Grain Maxi 1,460 FPS.1,752 FT.LB.11,100 PSI.
 .54 Caliber Rifle, Magnum Rated, Barrel Length 28", Twist Rate 1 in 48":
PowderGrains VolumeBullet Weight And Type Muzzle VelocityMuzzle EnergyPressure
Goex FFFg120 Grain230 Grain Roundball 1,773 FPS.1,606 FT.LB.11,100 PSI.
Goex FFFg110 Grain230 Grain Roundball 1,728 FPS.1,525 FT.LB.11,000 PSI.
Goex FFg120 Grain430 Grain Maxi 1,440 FPS.1,980 FT.LB.12,900 PSI.
Goex FFg110 Grain430 Grain Maxi 1,379 FPS.1,816 FT.LB.12,000 PSI.

Hodgdon Powders Velocity Comparisons:
 .45 Caliber Rifled Muzzleloader:
PowderGrains VolumePower Belt Bullet Velocity
Pyrodex RS100 gr.45 caliber = 225 grain 1741 fps.
Pyrodex P100 gr.45 caliber = 225 grain 1756 fps.
Pyrodex Pellet2-50 gr.45 caliber = 225 grain 1795 fps.
Triple Seven FF100 gr.45 caliber = 225 grain 1905 fps.
Triple Seven FFF100 gr.45 caliber = 225 grain 1925 fps.
 .50 Caliber Rifled Muzzleloader:
PowderGrains VolumePower Belt Bullet Velocity
Pyrodex RS100 gr.50 caliber = 348 grain 1509 fps.
Pyrodex P100 gr.50 caliber = 348 grain 1560 fps.
Pyrodex Pellet2-50 gr.50 caliber = 348 grain 1469 fps.
Triple Seven FF100 gr.50 caliber = 348 grain 1664 fps.
Triple Seven FFF100 gr.50 caliber = 348 grain 1623 fps.

Triple Seven Powder "VS" Blackhorn Powder:
 .50 Caliber Rifled Muzzleloader:
PowderGrains VolumeT/C Shockwave Bullet Velocity
Triple Seven FF100 gr.50 caliber = 200 grain 1903 fps.
Triple Seven FFF100 gr.50 caliber = 200 grain 1944 fps.
Blackhorn100 gr.50 caliber = 200 grain 1993 fps.
PowderGrains VolumeBarnes MZ Bullet Velocity
Triple Seven FF100 gr.50 caliber = 250 grain 1847 fps.
Triple Seven FFF100 gr.50 caliber = 250 grain 1905 fps.
Blackhorn100 gr.50 caliber = 250 grain 1923 fps.
PowderGrains VolumePowerbelt Bullet Velocity
Triple Seven FF100 gr.50 caliber = 270 grain 1719 fps.
Triple Seven FFF100 gr.50 caliber = 270 grain 1760 fps.
Blackhorn100 gr.50 caliber = 270 grain 1764 fps.
PowderGrains VolumePowerbelt Bullet Velocity
Triple Seven FF100 gr.50 caliber = 295 grain 1664 fps.
Triple Seven FFF100 gr.50 caliber = 295 grain 1691 fps.
Blackhorn100 gr.50 caliber = 295 grain 1693 fps.
PowderGrains VolumeHornady FPB Bullet Velocity
Triple Seven FF100 gr.50 caliber = 350 grain 1589 fps.
Triple Seven FFF100 gr.50 caliber = 350 grain 1630 fps.
Blackhorn100 gr.50 caliber = 350 grain 1701 fps.

Ballistics, Then And Now:

Traditional (18th Century) Muzzle-Loaded Rifle:
Pennsylvania longrifle, flint ignition, .45" caliber rifle,
barrel length is 41.5",
rifling twist rate is 1 in 66",
barrel diameter at breech is 1" across flats:
.445" Diameter, 133 Grain, Lead Round Ball Bullet,
90 Grains FFFG Black Powder,
2,230 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
1,469 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy.

Modern (21st Century) Muzzle-Loaded Rifle:
CVA Accura, magnum, 209 primer inline ignition, .45" caliber rifle,
barrel length is 27",
rifling twist rate is 1 in 28",
barrel diameter at breech is 1":
.4495" Diameter, 275 Grain, Lead Powerbelt Bullet,
150 Grains Pelletized Powder,
2,100 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
2,693 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy.

Ballistics, Then And Now:

Traditional (19th Century) Muzzle-Loaded Rifle:
Hawken, flint ignition, .50" caliber rifle,
barrel length is 32.0",
rifling twist rate is 1 in 60",
barrel diameter at breech is 15/16" across flats:
.490" Diameter, 177 Grain, Lead Round Ball Bullet,
90 Grains FFFG Black Powder,
1,930 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
1,464 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy.

Modern (21st Century) Muzzle-Loaded Rifle:
CVA Accura, magnum, 209 primer inline ignition, .50" caliber rifle,
barrel length is 27",
rifling twist rate is 1 in 28",
barrel diameter at breech is 1":
.4995" Diameter, 295 Grain, Lead Powerbelt Bullet,
150 Grains Pelletized Powder,
1,970 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
2,565 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy.

Ballistics, Then And Now:

Traditional (Mid 19th Century) Muzzle-Loaded Rifle:
Hawken, percussion cap ignition, .54" caliber rifle,
barrel length is 32.0",
rifling twist rate is 1 in 60",
barrel diameter at breech is 15/16" across flats:
.535" Diameter, 230 Grain, Lead Round Ball Bullet,
90 Grains FFFG Black Powder,
1,575 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
1,267 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy.

.535" Diameter, 230 Grain, Lead Round Ball Bullet,
100 Grains FFG Black Powder,
1,697 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
1,471 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy.

.535" Diameter, 230 Grain, Lead Round Ball Bullet,
110 Grains FFG Black Powder,
1,768 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
1,596 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy.

.535" Diameter, 230 Grain, Lead Round Ball Bullet,
120 Grains FFG Black Powder,
1,839 Feet Per Second Muzzle Velocity,
1,727 Foot Pounds Muzzle Energy..

Rifle Resources And References:
Rifles:
Rifling Twist Rates
Rifling Twist Effects
Rifle Barrel Break-In
Rifle Barrel Cryogenics
Rifle Barrel Free-Bore
Rifles:
Rifle Scopes
Rifle Scope Mounts
Rifle Scope Mounting
Rifle Sight-In
Rifle Sight-In For Hunting
Shooting And Hunting:
Centerfire Rifle Ballistics
Rimfire Rifle Ballistics
Handgun Ballistics
Muzzleloader Ballistics
Shotgun Shells - Slug Ballistics
Shotgun Game Guide
Free Rifle Targets:
Precision Sight-In Target Precision 100 Yard Sight-In Target Precision 25 Yard Target Precision 50 Yard Target Precision 75 Yard Target Precision 100 Yard Target
Precision Muzzleloader Sight-In Target Precision Crow Target Precision Groundhog Target Precision Rabbit Target Precision Squirrel Target Precision Turkey Target
Free Shotgun Targets:
Precision Black Grid Clay Target Precision Orange Grid Clay Target Precision Black Grid Dove Target Precision Orange Grid Dove Target Precision Black And White Turkey Target Precision Black And White Turkey Target With Black Grid
Precision Black And White Turkey Target With Details Precision Black And White Turkey Target With Details And Black Grid Precision Black Grid Over Ghost Turkey Image Target Precision Black And White Turkey Target With Orange Vitals Precision Black And White Turkey Target With Orange Vitals And Grid Precision Black And White Turkey Target With Details And Orange Vitals
Turkeys And Turkey Hunting:
Turkeys
Turkey Hunting
Turkey Hunting Shotguns
Turkey Hunting Shotgun Chokes
Turkey Hunting Shotgun Shells
Turkey Hunting Shotgun Patterning
White-tails And Deer Hunting:
White-tail Deer
White-tail Deer Hunting
Where To Shoot A White-tail Deer
Wild Game And Field Care
Processing - Nutritional Value
Small Game:
Rabbits - Squirrels.
Upland Birds:
Dove - Grouse - Pheasant - Quail - Woodcock.
Waterfowl:
Ducks - Geese.
Big Game:
Antelope - Bear - Hogs - Javelina - Sheep
Deer - Black-Tail Deer - Caribou - Elk
Moose - Mule Deer.
Varmints & Predators:
Bobcat - Cougar - Coyote.